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Innovations in Surgery and Reproductive Health
Innovations in Surgery and Reproductive Health
Grade level: 9-12 Subject: Health Duration: Three class periods
 



lesson plan support
Objectives
Students will
  • Detail significant innovations in surgery and reproductive health.
  • Describe important concepts regarding disease prevention and control, personal health, advancements in medical technology, and sexual reproduction.
  • Identify information about a medical innovation that would be important for a patient to know.
Materials
  • History of Medicine: Innovations in Surgery and Reproductive Healthvideo and VCR, or DVD and DVD player
  • Computer with Internet access
Procedures
  1. After watching the video, ask students to review some of the innovations in surgery and reproductive health featured in the video. Make a list on the board, including:
    • Development of birth control pills to prevent pregnancies
    • Discovery of chemotherapy, the process of using chemicals to kill microbes and treat diseases
    • Identification of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
    • The development of AIDS tests and treatments
    • Use of sonograms, especially for examining the developing fetus
    • Discovery of the human sperm and egg
    • Use of anesthesia in surgery
    • Use of sterilization, rubber gloves, and other hygienic practices in operating rooms
    • Method of amputation in which blood vessels are closed off
    • Understanding of human anatomy
    • Development of and advances in prosthetics or artificial limbs (such as the fluid hand)
  2. Next, divide the class into five groups. Assign each group one of the following situations:
    • Patient considering the pill and other forms of birth control
    • Patient getting a sonogram during pregnancy
    • Patient considering getting an HIV test
    • Patient worried about anesthesia before surgery
    • Patient considering a prosthesis
  3. Explain that their assignment is to research their assigned topic and determine what information the patient would need to know. Then they can present their findings in one of two ways: They may write and illustrate a medical brochure with relevant information, or write and perform a mock conversation between the patient and his or her doctor.
  4. To begin, have students determine the type of doctor the patient would visit, such as a gynecologist, obstetrician, general practitioner, surgeon, anesthesiologist, or orthopedic specialist Next, brainstorm a list of questions the patient might have about their topic. Encourage them to imagine themselves in the patient?s shoes. Below are a list of sample questions for each topic:

    Birth Control and the Pill
    • What is "the pill"? How does it work?
    • What are some other types of birth control?
    • Does the pill protect you from sexually transmitted infections?
    • Who should and shouldn't take the pill?
    • How often should you take the pill?

    Sonograms During Pregnancy
    • What is a sonogram? What are different names for a sonogram?
    • What are different reasons for sonograms?
    • How do I prepare for the test?
    • How does the procedure work? What will it feel like?
    • What will the sonogram look like?
    • What might I be able to see (at different stages of fetal development)? What won't I see in sonogram?
    • What are some abnormal results a sonogram might show?

    HIV Test
    • What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? If I have HIV, does that mean I have AIDS?
    • How is HIV transmitted?
    • Who should get tested?
    • What are some symptoms that you?ve been infected?
    • What can you do if you test positive for HIV? What are possible treatments?
    • How can you protect yourself from contracting HIV?

    Anesthesia
    • What is anesthesia?
    • Why is anesthesia used during surgery? How does it keep you from feeling pain?
    • What are different types of anesthesia? When are they used?
    • How will you be monitored when you?re under anesthesia?
    • How is the anesthesia administered? Who will do it?
    • What are possible side effects?

    Prosthetics
    • What are some different reasons for lost limbs?
    • What are different kinds of prosthetics?
    • What do different artificial limbs look like?
    • How does the prosthesis stay on?
    • How do you learn to use a prosthesis? What kinds of things can a person do with a prosthesis?
    • What are some recent innovations in prosthetics? What advances in prosthetics might we see in the future?

  5. Give students two class periods to complete their research and their final assignment. The Web sites below provide a good starting point for each topic:

    Birth Control
    Sonograms
    HIV/AIDS
    Surgery/Anesthesia
    Prosthetics

  6. Have students present their brochures or perform their conversations for the class. After each presentation, give students an opportunity to ask their own questions. What else might a patient want to know?

  7. To conclude the lesson, ask students to choose one of the innovations featured above, such as the AIDS test, sonograms, or prosthetics. Have them write a short essay describing how this scientific innovation and society have influenced each other. For example, how did societal events or challenges inspire this innovation? How did this innovation change the way people think about themselves?

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Evaluation
Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson.
  • Three points: Students gave detailed descriptions of surgical and reproductive health innovations, demonstrated a clear understanding of concepts regarding disease prevention and control, personal health, advancements in technology, or sexual reproduction: and created a complete and factually accurate brochure or mock doctor-patient conversation about their assigned topic, answering all essential questions a patient might have.
  • Two points: Students gave somewhat detailed descriptions of surgical and reproductive health innovations, demonstrated some understanding of concepts regarding disease prevention and control, personal health, advancements in technology, or sexual reproduction: and created a mostly complete and factually accurate brochure or mock doctor-patient conversation about their assigned topic, answering all essential questions a patient might have.
  • One point: Students did not give detailed descriptions of surgical and reproductive health innovations, demonstrated little understanding of concepts regarding disease prevention and control, personal health, advancements in technology, or sexual reproduction: and created an incomplete and factually inaccurate brochure or mock doctor-patient conversation about their assigned topic

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Vocabulary
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
Definition:The final, life-threatening stage of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Context:There are a growing number of drugs that can delay or prevent HIV from damaging the immune system so badly that a person develops AIDS.

anatomy
Definition:The structure of an organismís body parts
Context:His surgical achievements would have been inconceivable without precise knowledge of anatomy.

anesthesia
Definition:Induced loss of sensation in the body, with or without loss of consciousness
Context:Anesthesia makes long and complicated operations possible.

conception
Definition:The fertilization of an egg by a sperm at the beginning of pregnancy
Context:In the early 1930s chemists in Berlin discovered how to prevent conception in rabbits.

fetus
Definition:A developing, unborn human after eight weeks of gestation
Context:Sonograms allow doctors to view the developing fetus.

hormone
Definition:A chemical secreted by the body that has a specific effect on activities occurring in other parts of the body
Context:The hormones in birth control pills affect a womanís body in the same way as pregnancy, causing her to stop ovulating.

orthopedics
Definition:The branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the bones, joints, ligaments, or muscles
Context:The achievements in orthopedics after World War One later benefited many accident victims.

prosthesis
Definition:An artificial device used to replace a missing part of the body.
Context:If a person loses a limb, a prosthesis can help restore some functions.

sonogram
Definition:An image produced from ultrasound used to examine or measure internal structures
Context:In the United States, having a sonogram is routine for pregnant women.

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Academic Standards
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)
McREL?s Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education addresses 14 content areas. To view the standards and benchmarks,click here.
This lesson plan addresses the following national standards:
  • Science - Life Sciences: Understands the principles of heredity and related concepts; Understands the structure and function of cells and organisms
  • Health: Knows essential concepts about the prevention and control of disease; Understands the fundamental concepts of growth and development; Knows the availability and effective use of health services, products, and information

National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences provides guidelines for teaching science in grades K?12 to promote scientific literacy. To view the standards,click hereto visit the Web site.
This lesson plan addresses the following national standards:

  • Science and Technology
  • Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
  • History and Nature of Science

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