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Innovations in Adult Care
Innovations in Adult Care
Grade level: 9-12 Subject: Life Science Duration: Three class periods
 



lesson plan support
Objectives
Students will
  • Identify the important dates in a Nobel Prize?winning scientist?s life and explain why these dates are important.
  • Describe the scientist?s prize-winning discovery and the experiments he conducted in his research.
  • Explain how the scientist?s work built on the work of scientists who came before him.
  • Cite specifically how the findings from this work led to future discoveries in the same field
    of science or in other fields.
Materials
  • History of Medicine: Innovations in Adult Careprogram
  • Computer with Internet access
  • Poster board (optional)
  • Transparencies (optional)
Procedures
  1. Begin the lesson by dividing students into small groups. Ask the groups to think about the following question: What are the greatest medical discoveries of the 20th century? Encourage students to think of as many as they can. After five minutes, bring the class together and discuss their ideas. Make a list on the chalkboard.
  2. Tell students that during today’s lesson, they are going to learn about some of the 20th century’s major accomplishments in medicine. Then ask students to watch the programHistory of Medicine: Innovations in Adult Care, paying close attention to the following segments:
    • The Heart: Circulating Ideas
    • Machines and Medicine
    • Insulin: Shots of Hope
    • Noninvasive Measures
  3. Tell students that these segments highlight the work of five scientists or teams who won the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology. Ask students to focus on the information in the video about these scientists and their work. For your information, these scientists are listed below, along with their major accomplishments.
    • Karl Landsteiner, who won the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his discovery of human blood groups. This work made it possible for scientists to know when blood transfusions were safe. It also paved the way for organ transplantations; organs cannot be transplanted unless blood types are compatible.
    • William Einthoven, who won the Nobel Prize in 1924 for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. He also invented a device called a string galvanometer, which has enabled scientists worldwide to study the functions of the heart.
    • Joseph E. Murray, who won the Nobel Prize in 1990 for pioneering kidney transplantation. As a pioneer in the field of transplantation, Murray led the way for transplants of other organs in the body.
    • Sir Frederick Grant Banting and John James Richard Macleod, who won the Nobel Prize in 1923 for discovering insulin and developing it as a treatment for diabetes. Not only did this discovery save countless lives, it also led to additional studies about how carbohydrates are metabolized in the body.
    • Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Ernst Boris Chain, and Lord Howard Walter Florey, who won the Nobel Prize in 1945 for discovering penicillin and developing it as a treatment for bacterial infections. Many other antibiotics have since been developed from both natural and synthetic materials.
  4. After students have finished watching the program, point out that these scientists made some of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century. These discoveries, however, built upon previous work that had paved the way for new scientific breakthroughs.
  5. Tell students that they are going to work in small groups to focus on the work of one of these scientists or teams. Then divide the class into five groups and assign each group one scientist. Explain to students that they are going to develop presentations highlighting the work of these scientists. Their presentations could be a poster, a series of transparencies, or a PowerPoint show. Each presentation must include the following elements:
    • A chronology of important dates in the life of the scientist
    • A description of the Nobel Prize?winning discovery and the experiments done as part
      of the research
    • An explanation of how the scientist?s work built on the work of scientists who came before him
    • A discussion of how this work led to future discoveries in the same field or in other fields
  6. Give students time in class to work on the projects. To help students get started, suggest that they check out the following Web sites for more information about each scientist. Encourage students to locate additional Web sites on their own.
    • Karl Landsteiner: 1930 Nobel Prize WinnerBio 1|Bio 2
    • Willem Einthoven: 1924 Nobel Prize WinnerBio 1|Bio 2
    • Joseph E. Murray: 1990 Nobel Prize WinnerBio 1|Bio 2
    • Sir Frederick Grant Banting and John James Richard Macleod: 1923 Nobel Prize WinnersBio 1|Bio 2|Bio 3
    • Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Ernst Boris Chain, and Lord Howard Walter Florey: 1945 Nobel Prize WinnersBio 1|Bio 2
  7. During the next class period, ask volunteers to share their presentations.  Then discuss common threads among the work of these scientists. How did their work build on the work of those that came before them? How did this work lead to additional discoveries? What conclusions can the class draw about how progress in science is made?

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Evaluation
Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson.
  • Three points: Students provided complete information regarding their assigned scientists, including all the requested elements in their presentations, and demonstrated an understanding of common threads among the scientists’ lives and accomplishments.
  • Two points: Students provided adequate information regarding their assigned scientists, including all but one of the requested elements in their presentations, or demonstrated an incomplete understanding of common threads among the scientists’ lives and accomplishments.
  • One point: Students provided inadequate information regarding their assigned scientists; presentations were missing several elements; students were not able to demonstrate an understanding of common threads among the scientists.

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Vocabulary
blood groups
Definition:The organization of blood into four main groups (A, B, AB, and O) as a way to identify which molecules, or antigens, are found in the blood
Context:With the discovery of blood groups, physicians came to understand that transfusions must take place between compatible blood types; if not, the antigens of one type would react negatively with the antibodies of another type, resulting in potentially fatal complications.

electrocardiogram
Definition:A device that records the electrical waves produced by the heart as a way to detect heart disease
Context:Willem Einthoven studied and refined the electrocardiogram, work that earned him the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1924.

insulin
Definition:A hormone secreted by islet cells in the pancreas in response to an increase of glucose in the body; receptors in the body’s cells bind the insulin to their surface, activating other receptors to absorb the glucose necessary for life
Context:Before scientists understood the role that insulin plays in the body, people died from a deficiency of this hormone; this deficiency is a disease called Type 1 diabetes.

kidney transplantation
Definition:The process of replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one; for a transplantation to work, blood types must be compatible
Context:The biggest problem with kidney transplantation is organ rejection, which happens when the body produces antibodies against the new organ, making it impossible for it to function.

penicillin
Definition:The first antibiotic, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928; Fleming observed that the mold penicillium could destroy the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus
Context:Although Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, penicillin was not used widely until the 1940s, when Howard Florey and Ernst Chain figured out how to convert penicillin to a powder that could be made into a medicine.

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Academic Standards
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)
McREL?s Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education addresses 14 content areas. To view the standards and benchmarks,click here.
This lesson plan addresses the following national standards:
  • Scientific Knowledge - Understands the nature of scientific knowledge
  • Historical Understanding: Understands the historical perspective
  • Language Arts - Viewing: Uses viewing skills and strategies to understand and interpret visual media

National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences provides guidelines for teaching science in grades K?12 to promote scientific literacy. To view the standards,click hereto visit the Web site.
This lesson plan addresses the following national standards:

  • History and Nature of Science: Science as a human endeavor
  • History and Nature of Science: History of science

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