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Inca Rebellion image
Conquistadors: Inca Rebellion
Grade level: 9-12 Subject: World History Duration: Two or three class periods
 


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Objectives
Students will
  • research and report on the Inca uprising from the point of view of either the conquistadors or the Incas; and
  • write a short essay on whether or not this uprising and bloody clash of cultures could have been avoided.
Materials
  • Computer with Internet access
  • Paper, pens, pencils
  • Print materials on the Inca rebellion
Procedures
  1. Engage students in a discussion of the Inca rebellion. Encourage them to consider the clash of cultures from the point of view of both the Spanish conquistadors and the Incas. Make sure students understand the following events:

    • Manco Inca was put into place as emperor of the Incas by Pizarro as a puppet ruler;
    • Manco Inca surprised the Spaniards by organizing a resistance; and
    • Manco Inca was motivated to fight the Spaniards because he hated them after they humiliated him.

  2. Tell students they are going to work in groups to research both sides of the Inca rebellion and then give a brief report to the class. As part of their research, students in each group should answer these questions:

    • What was the goal or purpose of your assigned group (conquistadors or Incas)?
    • Who were some of the main characters involved in your group's side of the resistance?
    • What kind of life was your group accustomed to?
    • In what ways did your group differ from the other group?
    • What advantages did your group have in this clash of cultures?
    • What disadvantages did it face?
    • In your opinion, what mistakes or errors of judgment did your group make?

  3. Tell students that each group also should include in its report five or more direct passages or quotations from research that back up an answer to a question or provide other information about the group's perspective. Suggest that students look for examples of a particular bias or prejudice on the part of the writer.
     
  4. Divide the class into two groups; assign one Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards, the other Manco Inca and the Incas. If possible, have students use library resources as well as the Internet for their research.
     
  5. Direct the group focusing on the Spanish conquistadors' role in the Inca uprising to the following Web sites:

  6. Direct the group focusing on the Incas' waging of their rebellion to the following Web sites:

  7. When the student groups have finished their research, have them give a brief report to the class, answering the assigned questions and using appropriate passages as support.
     
  8. As a final activity, have each student write a paragraph or short essay on whether they think the Inca rebellion could have been avoided. Given the era and what was at stake, was it feasible that the two sides could have reached a peaceful solution in spite of their cultural differences?

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Evaluation
Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson.
  • Three points:Students participated actively in class discussions; worked cooperatively and effectively in their group and ensured that the assigned questions were answered clearly and thoughtfully in the report; wrote a paragraph or short essay that presented clear reasons for their opinion.
  • Two points:Students participated somewhat in class discussions; worked somewhat cooperatively and effectively in their group and contributed somewhat to ensuring that the assigned questions were answered clearly and thoughtfully in the report; wrote a paragraph or short essay that presented somewhat clear reasons for their opinion.
  • One point:Students did not participate in class discussions; did not work cooperatively or effectively in their group to ensure that the assigned questions were answered clearly and thoughtfully in the report; wrote a paragraph or short essay that lacked clear reasons for their opinion.

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Vocabulary
Almagro
Definition:Pizarro's former partner who became his fiercest enemy during the Inca rebellion
Context:Manco Capac's gravest mistake was to make Almagro his ally. In 1544, seven of Almagro's men assassinated Manco Inca.

Cuzco
Definition:The capital of the Inca EmpireContext:Cuzco was the site of the first Inca rebellion against the Spaniards.

Manco Inca
Definition:The Inca emperor who organized a resistance and fought the Spaniards from 1536 until his death in 1544
Context:Manco Inca staged two rebellions against the Spaniards, but ultimately the Incas were defeated.

Francisco Pizarro
Definition:The Spanish conquistador who successfully defeated the Inca
Context:Francisco Pizarro and his brothers were successful in crushing the Inca rebellion.

Vilcabamba
Definition:A heavily forested, remote mountainous area of Peru to which Manco Inca retreated in the midst of the Inca rebellion
Context:As Manco Capac and his followers retreated to Vilcabamba, they destroyed the roads and bridges behind them in an attempt to prevent the Spaniards from pursuing them.

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Standards
This lesson plan addresses the following standards from the National Council for the Social Studies:
  • Culture
  • Time, Continuity, and Change
  • Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
  • Power, Authority, and Governance

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Credits
Marilyn Fenichel, education writer and editor

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