K-2 > Math
 Grade level: K-2 Subject: Math Duration: 3 class periods
 Student Objectives | Materials | Procedures | Assessment | Vocabulary | Academic Standards

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Student Objectives
• Demonstrate the basic measures of length, width, height, weight, and temperature by measuring objects and recording the information.
• Demonstrate how time is measured by recording it to the nearest minute.
• Count money using coins and bills.
Materials
• Discovering Math: Beginning Measurementvideo
• Ruler
• Tape measure
• Yardstick
• Scale, such as a bathroom scale
• Large, alcohol-based thermometer
• Classroom objects to be measured and weighed (pencil, box, book, desk, etc.). Be sure the objects can be easily measured with the tools you are using.
• Weekly-sales circulars
• Clock (Judy Clocks, if possible)
• Charts 1–6 (see below)
Procedures
1. Display a ruler, yardstick, tape measure, and scale. Explain to students that these tools are used to measure.

The ruler, tape measure, and yardstick are tools for measuring the length, width, and height of an object. Model how to use these tools by lining up the end of an object with the end of the tool and identifying the nearest inch as the length, width, or height.

The scale is used to find the weight of an object. Model how to place an object on the scale and read the display (display will vary depending on type of scale teacher is using).

Set up two stations for students to practice measuring length, width, height, and weight.
• Station 1 ? Place several classroom objects and the ruler, tape measure, and yardstick at the station. Have students take turns using the measuring tools to find the length, width, and height of each object. They should record their measurements in Chart 1 Measuring the Length, Width, and Height of Objects. Then they can compare and discuss measurements using terms like greater than, less than, longer, and shorter.
• Station 2 ? Place several classroom objects and the scale at the station. Have students take turns weighing each object. They should record their measurements in Chart 2 Measuring the Weight of Objects. Then they can compare and discuss measurements using terms like greater than, less than, heavier, and lighter.

The students' abilities will determine the amount of guidance and support needed at each station. For very young students one or two objects to measure are sufficient.

As an extension students can go outside and find the length, width, and height of larger objects. They can find the perimeter of the playground, the length of the slide, or draw large boxes with sidewalk chalk and measure the length and width.
2. Ongoing activity — Show students a thermometer. Ask them what a thermometer is used for. Elicit responses and have them share their ideas. If possible, let students handle and observe the thermometer. Model how to read the temperature on the thermometer.

Tell students that a thermometer will be placed outside and they will take turns reading the thermometer to find out the temperature every day. The daily temperature will be recorded throughout the year on a temperature chart. Discussions regarding the daily temperature can accompany the reading (today is colder or warmer than yesterday by ___ degrees).
3. Show students a penny, nickel, dime, quarter, and one-dollar bill (students' abilities should determine the bills and coins that are introduced in this activity). Ask them the value of each piece of money. Record the answers on the board.

Practice identifying the bills and coins that can be combined to make specific amounts of money. (\$.37 = 1 quarter, 1 dime, and 2 pennies, or 3 dimes, 1 nickel, and 2 pennies, or 37 pennies.)

Have students work in pairs. Distribute a weekly-sales circular to each pair. Have students identify an item from the circular, write down the price, and then determine the bills and coins needed to purchase the item. They should record their information in Chart 3 Buying Items at the Store.

Young students, with introductory monetary skills, can use Chart 4 Bills and Coins Activity instead of the weekly sales circular. Assign values in the "Amount of Money" column and have them complete the "Bills and Coins Needed" section.

As an extension students can create a whole shopping list, determine the total price of the items, and identify the bills and coins needed to make the purchase.
4. Show students a clock (Judy Clock, if possible). Ask them why we use clocks and what clocks measure. Have them discuss their ideas. Explain that clocks are used tell time and to measure the passing of time.

If possible, let students work with their own clocks. Display a time on the clock. Ask them to read the time. Continue to practice telling time.

Tell students they are going to make a daily schedule using their clocks. Go through each activity of the day, including the start time and end time. Students should follow along by displaying the times on their clocks and recording the information Chart 5 Daily Schedule. It may be helpful to display each time as a model for the class.

If students are able they can determine the amount time that elapsed during each activity, using Chart 6 Daily Schedule Including Elapsed Time.

As an extension students can create their own daily schedule or make their weekend schedule. More advanced students can practice telling and displaying time in five-minute intervals.
Assessment
Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson.
• 3 points: Students produced complete charts, including all the requested information; clearly demonstrated the ability to measure length, width, height, weight, and temperature, count bills and coins, and tell and display times on a clock.
• 2 points: Students produced adequate charts, including most of the requested information; satisfactorily demonstrated the ability to measure length, width, height, weight, and temperature, count bills and coins, and tell and display times on a clock.
• 1 point: Students produced incomplete charts with little or none of the requested information; did not demonstrate the ability to measure length, width, height, weight, and temperature, count bills and coins, and tell and display times on a clock.
Vocabulary
clock
Definition:A device used for measuring or telling time
Context:The clock on the wall showed the students it was 3:00 p.m. They knew there were only ten more minutes of recess.

ruler
Definition:A straight strip of material (plastic, wood, or metal) marked off in units and used for measuring
Context:The students used a ruler to find out that the length of the book was eight inches.

scale
Definition:A balance or other device used for weighing objects
Context:The teacher placed the block on the scale to measure its weight. The blocked weighed 13 pounds.

schedule
Definition:A list showing the order in which items might be completed
Context:Each team created a schedule to show when they would complete each section of the project.

tape measure
Definition:A tape (metal or cloth) marked off in units and used for measuring
Context:The students used a tape measure to find out that the height of the desk was 28 inches.

thermometer
Definition:An instrument used for measuring temperature
Context:The students look at the thermometer every day to find out what the temperature is outside.

yardstick
Definition:A measuring stick that is one yard, or three feet, or 36 inches long
Context:The students used a yardstick to find out that the length of the driveway was 10 yards, or 30 feet, long.